Q Fever Vaccines

//Q Fever Vaccines
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Adverse Reactions

Localized redness, tenderness at injection site, flu-like ypmtoms, fever, chills, sweating, local induration at injection site, edema, vaccine-associated chronic fatigue syndrome. Symptoms of an allergic reaction may include: shortness of breath, wheezing or difficulty breathing, swelling of the face, lips, tongue or other parts of the body, skin rash, itching or hives.

Contraindications

Do not have Q-VAX® if you have or previously had an allergy to eggs, any of the ingredients listed at the end of this leaflet. There is no information on the use of Q-VAX® in pregnancy. or during breastfeeding. It is receommended that a booster dose of Q-VAX® vaccine not be given because a second dose may cause a severe reaction.

Discontinued

CSL announced in November last year that it would cease producing Q Fever vaccine. But CSL has advised the Australian Government that it expects to release another 12,000 doses of Q fever vaccine in March 2007 and a further 12,000 doses in March 2008

Severe Reactions

Such reactions, occasionally seen in cattle, are due to the oil adjuvant or to faulty purification of the rickettsial suspension.

A vaccine for Q fever has been developed and for occupational settings (veterinarians, farmers, sheep and dairy workers) in Australia only (not commercially available in the United States).

Q fever is a zoonosis (animal conditions transmissable to humans) caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. The infectious organism is found in cattle, sheep, goats and other domestic mammals, including cats and dogs. Most commonly spread by means of inhalation or ingestion (Infected animals shed this bacteria in urine, feces, birth products, and milk) but Q fever can also be tick-borne. The “Q” stands for “query” and was applied historically at a time when the causative agent was unknown.

Q Fever a Benign Disease

Q fever, in humans, is generally self-limiting and in 60% of the cases and results in asymptomatic seroconversion. Of symptomatic patients, only 4% required hospitalization. The most common manifestation is flu-like symptoms.

NOT deadly

Mortality is uncommon, even in hospitalized patients, and tends to occur in older patients.

Effectively Treated

Treatment of the acute Q fever with antibiotics. Doxycycline is the treatment of choice for acute Q fever. The prognosis is generally very good.

Extremely Rare Human to Human Transmission

In 1999, Q fever became a notifiable disease in the United States but reporting is not required in many other countries. Transfer between humans seems extremely rare and has so far been described in very few cases. The precise incidence is unknown because it is asymptomatic or mistaken for common colds or flu. Although the actual frequency is likely low, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention still receive reports of cases in the United States.

Biroterrorism?

Because Coxiella burnetii is a highly infectious agent, resistant to heat and drying, and can become airborne and inhaled by humans, governemnent officials and drug companies warn us that this agent has been considered as a potential biological warfare threat. But incubation of Q fever is long, infection can be inapparaent and mortality is low, it is a poor candidate for biological warfare. Q fever has never before in history been used as a biological weapon. In case of an intentionally released C burnetti by a terrorist, clinical presentation would be the same as naturally occurring disease.

Sources:

 

Q Fever Vaccines by Brand

Q-Vax Whole cell vaccine for Q fever
Manufacturer CSL Limited
Microorganism Coxiella burnetii
Licensed
Recommendations Single s.c. injection (on the upper arm) in order to avoid severe local reactions.
Ingredients Aluminum hydroxide, Sucrose, Thimerosal, Sodium chloride, Sodium phosphate-monobasic, Sodium phosphate-dibasic dodecahydrate, Egg protein, Virus: Coxiella burnetii organisms, killed, Formalin, Montanide 80 (R), Marcol 82 (R)
Product Descriptions CDC: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvrd/qfever/index.htm