Hepatitis A Vaccines

//Hepatitis A Vaccines
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Hepatitis A Vaccine Adverse Reactions

In clinical trials conducted by SmithKline Beecham, between 9 and 14 percent of adults and children reported headache after vaccination and between 21 and 56 percent had local reactions. Up to 10 percent had fever, fatigue, malaise, nausea and loss of appetite. Other reported reactions included stomach pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and joint pain. Post marketing vaccine reaction reports have included anaphylaxis, jaundice, convulsions, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, and neuropathy.(1) Since the vaccine was licensed in 1996, there have been 2,652 reports of hepatitis A vaccine related adverse events made to the government (VAERS), including 476 serious events and 18 deaths.(2)

Vaccine Components Not Adequately Evaluated

Hepatitis A vaccines manufactured by SmithKline Beecham and Merck are made using human fetal diploid (lung) cells to propagate the virus. HAVRIX contains aluminum as well as phenoxyethanol as a preservative. Traces of formalin and residual fetal human diploid cellular proteins are also present.(1) VAQTA contains aluminum and small amounts of non-viral protein, DNA, bovine albumin, and formaldehyde.(3) Both HAVRIX and VAQTA have “not been evaluated for its carcinogenic or mutagenic potential, or its potential to impair fertility.” No Long Term Studies: There were no long term studies to evaluate whether hepatitis A vaccine given alone or in combination with other vaccines is associated with chronic illness or disability, such as the development of diabetes, asthma, seizure disorders, learning disabilities, ADHD, or autism. The Merck product insert for VAQTA states “Subjects were observed during a 5-day period for fever and local complaints and during a 14-day period for systemic complaints.”(3)

References:

  1. SmithKline Beecham Product Manufacturer Insert (Hepatitis A Vaccine, Inactivated (HAVRIX). From Physicians Desk Reference (PDR), 2001.
  2. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) Report data
  3. Merck Product Manufacturer Insert (Hepatitis A Vaccine, Inactivated (VAQTA). Issued March 2001.

Hepatitis A Does Not Cause Chronic Infection and Rarely Causes Death

Hepatitis A has a mortality rate of less than one percent (0.6) and over 70 percent of deaths occur in adults over the age of 49. 4. Children often show no symptoms and the disease is more serious in adults. Vaccinating small children is inappropriate.

Child to Child Transmission in School is Rare

According to the CDC, “Child-to-child disease transmission [of hepatitis A] within the school setting is uncommon.” (1)

Vacination is Wrong Cause

Hepatitis A is a viral disease that thrives in areas with poor sanitation and is spread when people eat or drink something that has been contaminated with human body waste products. Prevention efforts are better spent on better living conditions.

Hepatitis A Already Declining

In 1970 the reported cases of hepatitis A in the US were 27.87 per 100,000 population. Since that time the incidence of hepatitis A has been declining so that in1999 the incidence rate was only 6.25 cases per 100,000 population. (2)

 

Hepatitis A Vaccines by Brand

AVAXIM® Inactivated Hepatitis A Vaccine
Manufacturer Aventis-Pasteur
Microorganism Hepatitis A Virus
Licensed 03/27/1997
Recommendations 1, 0.5 mL i.m. injection 0, (6 to 12 months) for those >= 12 years.
Ingredients Aluminum hydroxide, Formaldehyde, Human Diploid cells: MRC5 proteins, Neomycin, 2 – Phenoxyethanol, Polysorbate 80, Medium 199, Virus: Hepatitis A
Product Descriptions

Epaxal Aluminium-free hepatitis A vaccine
Manufacturer Crucell
Microorganism Hepatitis A Virus
Licensed 07/08/1999
Recommendations One 0.5 mL, i.m. injection. For long-term protection a booster vaccination of 0.05 ml should be administered, preferably 6 to 12 months after the first dose.
Ingredients Human Diploid cells: MRC5 proteins, Sodium chloride, Virus: Hepatitis A, Phospholipids lecithin, Cephalin (antibiotic)
Product Descriptions http://www.crucell.com/Products-Epaxal

Epaxal Berna® Hepatitis A vaccine (inactivated, virosome-formulated)
Manufacturer Swiss Serum and Vaccine Institute
Microorganism Hepatitis A virus
Licensed 02/07/1999 (# 109a/96) – Discontinued 2004
Recommendations 2, 0.5 mL i.m. injections in persons >= 12 years of age (0, 12 months).
Ingredients Formaldehyde, Human Diploid cells: MRC5 proteins, Thimerosal, Sodium chloride, Influenza A virus hemagglutinin
Product Descriptions

Havrix Hepatitis A Vaccine, Inactivated
Manufacturer GlaxoSmithKline
Microorganism The Hepatitis A virus
Licensed 02/21/2006
Recommendations Single i.m. injection for those 12 years of age and older; followed by a booster 6-12 months later.
Ingredients Aluminum hydroxide, Human Diploid cells: MRC5 proteins, 2 – Phenoxyethanol, Polysorbate 20, Virus: Hepatitis A, Amino acids, Saline solution, Neomycin sulphate, Formalin
Product Descriptions Package insert

Hepatyrix Hepatitis A (inactivated) and Typhoid Polysaccharide vaccine (adsorbed)
Manufacturer GlaxoSmithKline
Microorganism Salmonella typhi (Ty2 strain), Hepatitis A
Licensed 6/22/2004
Recommendations A single injection of 1.0 ml is recommended for both adults and adolescents aged 15 years and older.
Ingredients Aluminum hydroxide, Human Diploid cells: MRC5 proteins, Sodium chloride, Virus: Hepatitis A
Product Descriptions Package insert

Twinrix (adult) Combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine
Manufacturer GlaxoSmithKline
Microorganism Hepatitis A (strain HM175) & B virus (rDNA)
Licensed 05/11/2001
Recommendations Single i.m. injections at 0, 1, and 6 months for those 16 years of age and older.
Ingredients Aluminum hydroxide, Formaldehyde, Latex, Human Diploid cells: MRC5 proteins, 2 – Phenoxyethanol, Thimerosal, Yeast, Sodium chloride, Aluminum phosphate, Polysorbate 20, Virus: Hepatitis A, Amino acids, Dextrose, Neomycin sulphate, Formalin, Recombinant HBsAg protein, Aminoglycoside (antibiotic)
Product Descriptions

TwinrixJunior Combined hepatitis A and hepatitis B vaccine
Manufacturer GlaxoSmithKline
Microorganism Hepatitis A & B
Licensed 01/19/2007
Recommendations 3 i.m. injections at 0, 7, 21-30 days, and 12 months.
Ingredients Formaldehyde, Latex, 2 – Phenoxyethanol, Thimerosal, Sodium chloride, Virus: Hepatitis B, Polysorbate 20, Virus: Hepatitis A, Amino acids, Neomycin sulphate
Product Descriptions

VAQTA Hepatitis A vaccine, purified, inactivated
Manufacturer Merck
Microorganism The Hepatitis A virus
Licensed 08/11/2005
Recommendations One 0.5 mL i.m. injection for those 12 months of age or older; booster 6-18 months after.
Ingredients Formaldehyde, Latex, Human Diploid cells: MRC5 proteins, Sodium chloride, Bovine (cow) serum, Virus: Hepatitis A, Sodium Borate, Formalin, Aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate
Product Descriptions

ViATIM Hepatitis A (Inactivated, adsorbed) and Typhoid polysaccharide vaccine
Manufacturer Sanofi Pasteur MSD
Microorganism Hepatitis A and Typhoid polysaccharide
Licensed 11/22/2002
Recommendations Age 16 or older, 0, 6-12 months.
Ingredients Aluminum hydroxide, Formaldehyde, Neomycin, 2 – Phenoxyethanol, Polysorbate 80, Sodium chloride, Medium 199, Disodium phosphate dehydrate, Virus: Hepatitis A, Vibrio polysaccharide antigen, Sodium dihydrogen phosphate dehydrate
Product Descriptions Package insert